This category includes nanostructured coatings, dispersion of nanoparticles, surface nanopatterning, ultra-precision engineering, and bulk materials (nano-structured metals, polymers, and ceramics). These materials have steady or quasi-steady structures and functions; such as mechanical behavior and chemical reactivity. Passive physical properties of the nanotechnology are the heart of this mechanism type. The primary application of passive nanostructures are in components (e.g. particles, wires, nanotubes, etc.) with improved properties and functions due to their nanostructure[springerlink:10.1007/s11051-006-9092-7].
Types of Passive Nanostructures:
1. Surface Applications: Dispersed and contact surface nanostructures such as nanoscale colloids, aerosols, and powders that may have significant exposure to bio-systems[springerlink:10.1007/s11051-006-9092-7].
2. Structural Applications: Products incorporating nanostructures such as nanoscale layers in transistors or bulk materials[springerlink:10.1007/s11051-006-9092-7].
3. Engineered Nanoparticles (not amorphous): Small-sized basic units of properties (fine and ultra-fine nanoparticles) from base materials such as silver, gold, titanium, iron, platinum, or cadmium (quantum dots)[springerlink:10.1007/s11051-006-9092-7].
4. Engineered Nanotubes: Cylindrically composed nanostructures that is most widely applied in the production of carbon nanotubes[springerlink:10.1007/s11051-006-9092-7].